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1. Based on the way the term is defined in your textbook, is the following argument valid or invalid? “If it snowed in May, then all of the clouds in Kansas would disappear. The clouds have not disappeared. Therefore it did not snow in May.”

2. Write a short argument where the premises and conclusion are all true, but the argument is nevertheless not valid.

3. What is the conclusion of the following argument? “Johnson was there, and Ramirez was there. But Thomas was not there, for if he were there, Gomez would have been there too, and Gomez was not there.”

4. Is the following argument deductive or inductive? “Most of the samples we have drawn from this batch were positive, so this next one is likely positive as well.”

5. Is the following argument deductive or inductive? “One of these three cards has the answer on it, and it isn’t the first two, so the answer must be on the third.”

6. What fallacy is committed by the following argument? “Jennifer Paulson says you should pass the measure to decrease waste in schools, but you should not listen to her word on anything: I have heard very disreputable things about her character, and I think you should not trust her at all.”

7. What fallacy is committed by the following argument? “I believe that evil spirits visit the graveyard at night. My sister thinks I’m wrong, but no one has ever proven that they don’t visit, so I believe they do.”

8. What fallacy is committed by the following argument? “The policy requiring students to say the pledge of allegiance was ended in 1993, and since that time the incidence of teen pregnancy in our town has gone up. Clearly the end of the policy led to a loosening of morals and thus to this rise in pregnancy rates.”

9. What fallacy is committed by the following argument? “It is clear that there is something morally wrong with changing your will to include Joe, because it is obvious that it’s immoral to put him in your will!”

10. What fallacy is committed by the following argument? “You have to vote for James Lindor. Everyone in our family is voting for him. Everyone in our neighborhood is voting for him. If you’re one of us, you’ll vote for him.”

11. What fallacy is committed by the following argument? “The Senate voted for this bill, and you are a member of the Senate, so you must have voted for this bill.”

12. Briefly describe a scenario in which one might use the relative frequency model of probability.

13. If I flip a coin twice and infer that the probability of it landing on heads both times was 25%, have I used the relative frequency or the a priori theory of probability?

14. If there is a 30% chance that A happens, and a 40% chance that B happens, and A and B are mutually exclusive, then what is the probability that either A or B happens?

15. If you have 50 marbles in a bag, ten of which are red, what is the probability of drawing a red marble twice in a row if you return the first marble to the bag before the second draw? Part II. Construct a truth table for each of the following statements. (5 points each)

16. (A&B) v ~A 17. X > (Y > X