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E Women in Journalism
As journalism became a profession, women were restricted by custom and law from access to journalism occupations and faced significant discrimination within the profession. Nevertheless, women operated as editors, reporters, sports analyst and journalists even before the 1890s.
Beginning in the late nineteenth century, women began agitating for the right to work as professional journalists in North America and Europe; Nellie Bly was the most noted of these turn-of-the-century reporters.
Women increased their presence in professional journalism, and popular representations of the “intrepid girl reporter” became popular in 20th-century films and literature, perhaps most notably in “His Girl Friday”.
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Katherine Graham (June 16, 1917 – July 17, 2001) was an American publisher. She led her family’s newspaper, The Washington Post, for more than two decades, overseeing its most famous period, the Watergate coverage that eventually led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon. Her memoir, Personal History, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1998.
Read more from the National Women’s History Museum…
Betty Friedan was born on February 4, 1921, in Peoria, Illinois. In 1963, she published The Feminine Mystique, which explores the idea of women finding fulfillment beyond traditional roles. Friedan co-founded the National Organization for Women in 1966, and served as its first president. She published The Second Stage in 1982and The Fountain of Age in 1993. She died on February 4, 2006, in Washington, D.C.
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Oprah Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American media executive, actress, talk show host, television producer, and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, which was the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago. Dubbed the “Queen of All Media”, she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America’s first black multi-billionaire, and has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history. She has also been sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world.
Read more about her early life and humble beginnings in television…
Sheryl Sandberg (born August 28, 1969) is an American businesswoman. She has served as the chief operating officer of Facebook since 2008. In June 2012, she was also elected to the board of directors by the existing board members, becoming the first woman to serve on its board. Before Facebook, Sandberg was Vice President of Global Online Sales and Operations at Google. She also was involved in launching Google’s philanthropic arm Google.org. Before Google, Sandberg served as chief of staff for the United States Secretary of the Treasury. In 2012, she was named in Time 100, an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by Time.
Sheryl Sandberg released her first book, Lean In: Women, Work and the Will to Lead, co-authored by Nell Scovell and published by Knopf on March 11, 2013. Lean In is a book for professional women to help them achieve their career goals and for men who want to contribute to a more equitable society. The book looks at the barriers preventing women from taking leadership roles in the workplace, barriers such as discrimination, blatant and subtle sexism and sexual harassment. She also examines societal barriers such as the fact that women still work the double day and the devaluing of work inside the home as opposed to work outside the home. Along with the latter, there are the barriers that women create for themselves through internalizing systematic discrimination and societal gender roles. Sandberg argues that in order for change to happen, women, need to break down these societal and personal barriers by striving for and achieving leadership roles. The ultimate goal is to encourage women to lean into positions of leadership because she asserts that by having more female voices in positions of power there will be more equitable opportunities created for everyone.
Watch her TED Talk: “Why we have too few women leaders”
Ms Magazine: Surprising Similarities: Sandberg’s “Lean In” and Friedan’s “Feminine Mystique”
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According to “Gendered Newsroom Cultures and Values”, women have changed the newsroom and/or the news agenda. How? Do we agree/disagree with the claims on how women have changed the newsroom and/or news agenda? Be specific in what claims you agree with and which you don’t and why or why not? Please also read and perform Practical Media Literacy, Chapter 7, Activity 7.1, Gender in Newspapers, and incorporate your findings into your discussion.