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Each response must be supported with at least 2 peer-reviewed sources and include 1 biblical application/integration (Part II). Note that the biblical application/integration cannot be more than 10% MUST BE 450 WORDS
respond to Quenten Martin
1. What are the independent and dependent variables in this study?
In the GEM of a Study case, both independent and dependent variables are determined. Intervening variables are viewed as factors which hypothetically influence the dependent variables but cannot be viewed or measured (Schindler, 2021). This study was to focus on controlling intervening variable of creating a culture that focuses on promoting entrepreneurship. Extraneous variables are factors that could affect specific relationship in the study, and some extraneous variables included in this study endeavored toward controlling culturally, economically, physically, and politically factors which required measuring in this study. Moderating variables are independent variables that significantly affect the original relationship between both independent and dependent variables. Also, these variables endeavored controlling resource availability for women and advancing a business venture. The capacity of controlling intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables assist with tackling normal issues that researchers are likely to endeavor, which is mistakes in statistical association.
The independent variables included items reliable and unchanged, and the dependent variables which is of interest of the researcher in this case study involved economic growth, Gross Domestic Product GDP) growth, and forming tasks. Schindler & Cooper (2018) indicated that “researchers can manipulate independent variables which will affect the dependent variable.” Some of the independent variables include entrepreneurial framework conditions, but most variables are viewed as extraneous, interviewing, or palliative. Also, these variables can be recognized as independent extraneous variables square measure depicted as essentially infinite in difference but considered as independent or palliative variables assumed or avoided from this study. It is critical that a conclusion is provided, which the suggestions were based on gender, which should have been included and discussed in the data analysis. Also, the dependent variables included in this case study involved entrepreneurial action, the business venture demeanor, inspiration of start-up rates for a business, and both income and employment levels.
In a biblical sense, variables likewise can be applied to our daily routines. Our lives are comprised of variables and constant. God is under control, thusly making Him our constant. Rocha (2019) indicated that “anything influenced by God is never out of control.” God’s focus is what is in our best interest, and He provided a plan to assure this is achieved.
What are some of the intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables that the study attempted to control with its 10-nation design?
There are multiple variables present in this case study. An intervening variable (mediator) communicates the impact of an independent variable to a dependent variable (MacKinnon et al., 2002, p. 14). These variables are speculative and justify the connections between different variables, and since these variables are theoretical, they cannot be estimated. Creating a cultural social impact, the variables cannot be genuinely estimated. Extraneous variables are variables that were not planned to be studied. These variables are viewed as variables that might compete with independent variables when providing an outcome (Leatham, 2012). For this case study, societal, monetary, physical, and political factors differences are viewed as extraneous variables.
Moderating variables alludes to variables strengthening, lessening, nullifying, or in any case modify the relationship that exits between both independent and dependent variables (Allen, 2017). These variables can be helpful in a study because it provides an explanation between both independent and dependent variables. Moderating variables can be either qualitative or quantitative, but the variable in this case study can be viewed as a moderating variable. In a biblical sense, ensuring no one is repaid evil for evil, but always focus on doing good to one another and to everyone (English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Thes 5:15).
Can you do a casual study without controlling intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables.
A casual study can be feasibly conducted without controlling intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables. However, the results of the researcher may become endangered of error without control. Even though control variables are not the focal interest of researchers, it is predominant that the relationship between both independent and dependent variables are clearly understood. Researchers should consider the importance of control variables and both independent and dependent variables in their study design. It is impossible for the researcher to make an accurate claim regarding the effect of independent variables without control variables (Allen, 2017, p. 1). Also, controlling extraneous variables are especially significant based on them ultimately adding an alternative explanation to the results of the study. In research, generally controlling variables assist with enhancing the relationship between both independent and dependent variables which prompt precise outcomes. In the acts of God, we view His divine love revealed as the response as to why people exist and why they mainly do the things they do (English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Gen. 2:24).
What is the impact on study results of using national experts (key informants) to identify and weigh entrepreneurial framework conditions?
Key informant interviews are thorough interviews of a select (non-random) group of experts educated on the issues of the organization (Lavrakas, 2008, p. 1). In the different locations, the key informants allowed researchers to accumulate data on the social, political, and entrepreneurial circumstances of the different countries. This data was accumulated by experts through long drawn out interviews and a twelve page questionnaire. The selection of the key informants was not mentioned, which could affect the outcomes, for example, potentially a predisposition. It is critical that the key informants are not arbitrarily selected. Selecting a various combination of diverse and educated experts will assist with better mirroring the circumstances in the different countries. Generally, considering a strategic election of key informants within the researcher’s design would have been helpful. A biblical passage for this information is committing your work to the Lord, and your plans will be established (English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Prov. 16:3).
Can you do a casual study when much of the primary data collected is descriptive opinion and ordinal or interval data?
This GEM case analysis indicated that it is feasible to conduct a casual study when essential information is gathered and has a descriptive opinion and ordinal data. The casual study that involve most of the significant data involving an opinion, ordinal, or interval information could present a risk in the unwavering quality and the validity of the study. This study had an option of indicating a casual relationship given these boundaries, so ideally, a casual study can be achieved. The casual explanation lean more toward the explanation of the internal physical components of the peculiarity and not the logic of a theory (Ratner, 2003, p. 2). A casual study is shaped when both independent and dependent variables are estimated quantitatively, and descriptive research includes gathering information depicting events, peculiarity, individuals, and significantly more. The descriptive information cannot be used for introducing casualty, but researchers report occasions or peculiarity while providing different probabilities and cannot make sense of the casualty, which present the risk of inaccurate outcomes.
As expressed earlier, it would be ideal to enhance this study beyond a causation study, to ensure the discoveries are more precise. The major variable which can prompt the success of a casual study when essential data gathered is descriptive opinion involve using key informants. However, causative elements can be exceptionally tricky, and require experts to use their knowledge and expertise for providing an observation on the variables involved in this case study. This dependable knowledge will permit a casual study to be achieved with ordinal or interval data and provide the researchers with control over the distinctions located in every country.
Allen, M. (2017). The sage encyclopedia of communication research methods (Vols. 1-4).
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Doi: 10.4135/9781483381411.
Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Encyclopedia of survey research methods (Vols. 1-0). Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412963947.
Leatham, K. R. (2012). Problems identifying independent and dependent variables. School
Science and Mathematics, 112(6), 349-358 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2012.00155.x.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & sheets, V. (2002). A
comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological methods, 7(1), 83-104. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989×7.1.83.
Ratner, L. W. (2003). Philosophy and logic of physical theory. Kelseyville, CA: Elsevier
Rocha, C. (2019). “God is in control”. Middle-class Pentecostalism and international student
migration. Journal of contemporary religion, 34(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2019.1585097.
Schindler, P. S., & Cooper, D. R. (2018). Business research Methods. New York, NY;
English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Thes 5:15.
English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Gen. 2:24.
English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Prov. 16:3